Legalization of Cannabis Dispute in the US Case Essay
Order ID 53003233773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Legalization of Cannabis Dispute in the US Case Essay
Actuation Persuasive Presentation
- marijuana should/should not be legalized
- Attention Catcher: The legalization of cannabis has been widely disputed in the US, but is making ground slowly but surely. Recreational cannabis is legal in four states: Oregon, Colorado, Alaska, and Washington state. This November, five states will vote to legalize recreational cannabis: California, Massachusetts, Maine, Arizona, and Nevada.(sept 07. 2017 huffingtonpost article 11870030. The health benefits of of cannabis is undoubtedly beneficial as a natural method of rehabilitation. I read a business Insider article that detailed several benefits such as decreasing anxiety and eases pain to say the least.
- Listener Relevance: The multiple med bene’s alone should legalize it. While these states are making strides, you need to consider how
III. If you have experienced pain, anxiety
- Im sure every one in this room may have experienced anxiety or pain, at the very least. Would you all agree that a natural method of curing these aiments is healthier than using a synthetic drug?
- Speaker Credibility:
- Thesis Statement: Overcrowding in America’s prisons is becoming a liability to the
American way of life.
- Preview: I will apply three Criminal Justice ideas of concept, resources, and management.
First, I will discuss how the problem of prison overcrowding is causing some serious problems in American society; second, I will examine the causes; and, finally, I will recommend three solutions to alleviate the impacts.
- First Main Point: Prison overcrowding is becoming a liability to American society. Two major issues arise from overcrowding.
- Prison overcrowding costs taxpayers money.
- The first is a very simple one: money. The more prisons operate above capacity, the more dollars come out of the taxpayers wallets. More resources and personnel are required to maintain order within the prisons.
- Additionally a February 2007 Las Vegas Review Journalarticle stated that the more crowded a prison becomes, the greater the tendency for violence. A study in the Sept. 2006 Assessment Journal found that violent behavior by inmates precipitates even more violence, increasing the risks to correctional officers and inmates.
- As violent behavior increases, higher medical expenses accrue, and the burden of these expenses shifts to the taxpayer.
- Quality of life is diminished in overcrowded prisons.
- The second issue is quality of life. The trend across the nation is that prison populations have been increasing at a much faster rate than public support for funding; thus, funding for new prison space has not kept up with the demand.
- A large majority of prisons are designed in a specific manner to accommodate an exact number of prisoners. These facilities are often designed to facilitate the easiest prisoner transfer, monitoring, and holding.
- When they are above capacity, the functionality of the architecture is lost. As explained in the article “A guide to prison privatization” on the Heritage Foundation website last accessed on February 28, 2007, due to this very high demand, judges in 41 states have actually issued mandates requiring that the state either find new space for these prisoners or authorities will be forced to release them back into society before their sentences have been served.
- This increases the risk to society because criminals are re-entering society before they are ready and before they have served their sentences. Early release occurs because the extremely overcrowded condition in many prisons has severely lowered the quality of life for these prisoners.
- Even prison inmates deserve a decent quality of life.
Transition: Now that we have analyzed the problem of overcrowding, let us discuss the causes behind the impacts overcrowding is having on society.
- Second Main Point: Three causes of prison overcrowding are apparent when we examine the ideas of concept, resources, and management.
- The concept of corrections is flawed.
- First and foremost we need to look at the concept of corrections. Imprisonment has three main objectives: Deterrence, punishment, and rehabilitation. Overcrowding is detrimental to all three facets of the concept. But what are most important are the effects on rehabilitation.
- Overcrowded prisons do not allow correctional officers to offer the adequate services necessary to properly rehabilitate offenders. These conceptual causes increase the rates by which offenders recidivate and re-enter the prison system, leading to even greater overpopulation.
- Resources in prisons are insufficient.
- The next causal analysis is resources. As prisons rise higher and higher above capacity, they put a greater strain on resources. The previously cited Bureau of Justice Statistics website, states that in many states such as California and Texas, the demands on the system far exceed the public willingness or ability to fund the needs.
- With only a limited amount of resources available, this strain leads to lower abilities to maintain order and to offer the programs necessary.
- Plus as prisoner population increases, staffing does not increase at the same rate, and thus you have a higher prisoner to personnel ratio than prisons were designed to handle.
- All of these things lead to more problems and greater demands causing a heavier burden on the taxpayer’s wallet.
- Resources are not managed properly.
- The final cause we can explore is the management of those resources. Overcrowding severely inhibits correctional facilities from effectively managing their resources.
- With only a limited availability, poor management of those resources has led to greater expense to the taxpayer. John DiLulio, author of the book Governing Prisons, pointed out that management of limited resources is the key to maintaining order.
- As we have seen in our problems, an increase in violent behavior puts more strain on staff to maintain order. As these risks increase, a greater demand for personnel to manage inmates occurs and greater medical expenses result from violent behavior.
Transition: Now that we have explored the problem of how overcrowding in prisons is becoming a liability to American society, both as a financial burden on the taxpayer and as a risk to society, we put the negative impacts caused by problems in concept, management, and resources behind bars, we must recommend some solutions.
III. Third Main Point: Three solutions can occur through various forms of privatization: Facilities management, contractual labor, and services. As I discuss these solutions, I will be starting from the top and working toward the base, beginning with management, then resources, and concluding with solving for the concept of corrections. As explained in the previously cited heritage foundation article, 31 states have utilized some form of privatization in the corrections systems. This privatization is the process of handing a specific portion of the prison system over to a private sector group or corporation to manage for profit.
- Privatization of facilities will improve management.
- The first solution is how private facilities operation will improve the management of the prison system. The solvency of private ownership and operation of prisons is two fold.
- The most obvious is that privatization will generate more space where space is needed because private corporations can build prisons cheaper.
- The second benefit of private management is that they are able to manage these facilities better and with less expense to the taxpayer.
- The way these facilities often operate is they charge a per diem to the state for each prisoner per day they hold them. Costs vary greatly from state to state; however, Stephen McFarland and his team of researches found in their 2002 study “Prisons, Privatization, and Public values” that many states saved an average of 14-17% vs. state run prisons.
- Contractual labor improves use of resources.
- The second solution today generates greater resource flexibility by providing and improving contractual labor.
- These are programs where prisons contract with business for a specific labor need, such as call center operators or manufacturers. According to information in the previously cited Heritage Foundation article, Best Western Hotel chain has contracted with several prisons to have inmates do their over-the-phone reservations.
- These jobs are beneficial both to the employer and to the prisons. Employers can negotiate far cheaper hourly wages for the jobs, and large percentages of the money earned goes directly to the state for room/board, taxes, and restitution.
- Prisoners also benefit from these programs. They are able to gain some important skills that they can utilize to assist in their reintegration, which helps reduce recidivism.
- Finally these tasks also provide an activity for prisoners to engage themselves in, reducing prisoner idle time, which in turn assists in maintaining order with the use of fewer overall resources.
- Privatization of services will help rehabilitate prisoners.
- Our third and final solution is solving for the concept of corrections is to rehabilitate criminals for reintegration into society. Increased private operation of prisoner services, especially education, will be the most effective.
- The availability of these programs provides an opportunity where none existed before. According to James Austin and Garry Coventry in their 2002 research “Emerging Issues on Privatized Prisons,” private run services provide greater rehabilitation to inmates.
- Rehabilitation is one of the major facets of correctional concept, and thus better education is vital. Effective rehabilitation for offenders reduces violence and generates a more successful reintegration into society, in turn reducing recidivism.
- Thesis Restatement: Overcrowding in America’s prisons is becoming a liability to the American way of life.
- Main Point Summary: Today we have discussed the problem of prison overcrowding, the causes of this problem, and three solutions to reduce the burden on taxpayers as well as the detriments to society that non-rehabilitated offenders pose as a result of prison overcrowding. These are not the only solutions, nor will they completely solve for the overcrowding problem; however, successful implementation of these solutions will significantly reduce the impact on society.
III. Clincher: While my solutions may be too late for young Joseph Maldonado, hopefully this plan will prevent other inmates from suffering the consequences of an overburdened criminal justice system.
Austin, J., & Coventry, G. (2001). Emerging issues on privatized prisons. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Assistance.
Cunningham, M. D., & Sorenson, J. R. (2006). Actuarial models for assessing prison violence risk. Assessment, 13, 253-265.
Dilulio, J. D. (1987). Governing prisons. New York: The Free Press.
Harrison, P. & Allen, J. B. (2006). Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin: Prisoners in Retrieved on February 28, 2007 from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/p05.pdf
Joel, D. (1988). A guide to prison privatization. Retrieved on February 28, 2007 from http://www.heritage.org/Research/Crime/BG650.cfm
McFarland, S., McGowan, C., & O’Toole, T. (2002). Prisons, privatization, and public values. Retrieved on February 27, 2007 from http://government.cce.cornell.edu/doc/pdf/PrisonsPrivatization.pdf
Walsh, D. (2006, November 29). Family sues over teen’s prison death. Sacramento Bee, p. B1.
Whaley, S. (2007, February 8). Surge in prison violence predicted. Las Vegas Review-Journal, p. 1B.
Legalization of Cannabis Dispute in the US Case Essay
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). 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APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. 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Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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